A Brief Introduction to Bailin Oyster
Pleurotus nebrodensis, also named the Bailin Oyster mushroom and White Ferula Mushroom, has two good names i.e. tianshanshengu and xitianbailingu. The wild mushroom of our country mainly grows in terribly few asafetida shoals belonging to hungriness and the desert of Xinjiang. Because it is an audacious fungus in the decomposed rootstalk of remedy plant asafetida, it is named Ferula Mushroom. The quantity of wild mushroom is rare because its wild environment is quite bad and it is excess picked as well as trampled by livestock. Its fruit body is white as snow and plump while its flesh is slender and slippery. It has high edible worth and is abundant in manifold nutrition including sub-oleic acid, non-saturation fatty acid, amylose amino acid and many microelements such as calcium, zinc and manganese. Base on high drug worth, it could be used to prevent and cure aged painstaking effort canal disease, rickets, gibbsite and loosen bone disease of enfant It could be apply to prevent and contradict cancers for its plenty fungal amylose. The mushroom could be sold in fresh form or cans sliced up and dried. Also, it could be deeply processed and made sense as health care nurture, condiment and drink additive. The demand exceeds supply in the world. The mushroom is one of ten mushrooms, which have furthest exploitation potential. It’s current best savageness green health care food with vast exploitation foreground. Thus, it’s a new type farm produce with high annexation worth.
According to special ecological environment and biological characteristics of the mushroom, it is somewhat difficult to domesticate them manually and plant them successfully. The planting techs are facility, strong adaptability, little investment and rapid execution. The tech proceedings are as following:
1. Planting time
The mushroom belongs to middle and low temperature fungi. It could be gained high yield and good quality if the mushroom is planted in autumn and fruiting in spring and winter. The mushroom could be planted anniversary if people have mushroom houses installed refrigeration air conditions.
2. Selection of the strain
According to the mushroom shape demand of international markets, it is better to plant tianshang-2 (like hand, non-stipe). Tianshang-1 (filler form and long stipe) could be sold in-home markets. However, its price is lower than tianshang-2’s. Base on the planting cycle, tianshang-2 is longer than tianshang-1.
3. Medium components
Fresh cottonseed without mould 500 Kg, bran 100 Kg, oil residue 25 Kg, corn powder 25 Kg, white sugar 5 Kg, asafetida powder 10Kg, ferment 3.5 Kg, calcium carbonate 5 Kg, cross calcium phosphate 2.5 Kg, phosphor ache two hydrogen kalium 1Kg, Topsin-M 1Kg, calcareousness powder10 Kg.
4. Build heap ferment
To improve output, medium main components must be mixed with edible bacterium ferment. After main components having been fermented, add assist bagging and sterilization. According to medium components, select medium main material without agglomeration and mold, add 0.5% ferment, mix completely adding water (about 55-60%). When materials are wet, heap them to width 1.2-1.5m, height 1.0-1.2m and unlimited length strip form. Bore around the heap with a 3-5cm timber; space between two bores is 0.4-0.5cm,and then covers the heap with grass or hemp and ferment. While the temperature rise to about 55,holding for 1-2 day, cross the heap and hold the former form, bore, cover. When the temperature again rise to 55, cross the heap again. Cross once a day, total 4-5 times. When medium appears palm brown, corrupt equally, color identically, character loosely, full of flexibility, gives out aroma lees gout, appears “white line bacterium”, it shows that fermentation has succeeded. Then disperse the heap and lower the temperature, adjust moisture to 60% and start to bag.
(1) Hold suitable moisture (about 55%).
If moisture is overabundance (>70%), give birth disgust-oxygen ferment, medium becomes sour, primary colors, the temperature rises slowly. If moisture is lower than 50%, smoking phenomenon appears, brings out mould sapidity, and havocs the nutriments.
(2) Control appropriate temperature
The fermentation process is the course that increases conduce bacteria and reduces nocuous bacteria. The conduce bacteria such as joined fermentation materials and nature existing conduce bacteria belong to addicting hot microorganism, whose most suitable temperatures are between 55°C and 68°C . And the most suitable temperatures of most of nocuous bacteria are 25-28°C
(3) Ensure abundant oxygen
The embedded microorganism of fermentation materials is aerophil. It could only reproduce abundantly and accelerate substance transformation under the condition of abundant oxygen. Do provide better culture material for the mushroom.
5. Bagging and sterilization
Planting bags, which is 20 cm diameter, 0.04 cm thick and 40 cm length, should be made from high density and low pressure polyethylene. The bags must have the same thick and size. It should be pricked with ropes before bagging. The bags should be tightened and do not leave out gas. Manual work or machines could carry out bagging. People may sack the fermentation media directly. Be sure that degree of tightness is moderate and the bags do not leave out gas. It is better to fetch the bags lightly in the course of bagging and transport to avoid puncturing the bags and the bags polluted. The bagging period must be fast and finished in 4-6 hours. Then the bags should be sterilized immediately to prevent rancidity of the media for excessive high temperature. Now most mushroom farmers often adopt normal pressure sterilization kitchen ranges. Based on the cubage of kitchen ranges, it could be placed 1200-2400 bags. The bags are stacked in cis arrangement to benefit the ventilation. People could use fire or steam to sterilize the bags by meanings of keeping the inner temperature of kitchen ranges in 100°C for 16-18 hours. When the sterilization is finished, do stop the fire or gas at once. The bags could be brought out when the inner temperature is about 60°C . Then transport the bags to a sterilized room to cooling them. Do check whether the bags have the phenomenon such as tiny hole, fracture and dispersion. If the condition is ture, please stick the bags by lucency adhesive tape and tighten the bags by ropes.
6. Sterilization and inoculation
The sterilization bags could be placed in the cooling rooms to reduce their temperature. When the temperature is lower than 30°C , people may inoculate the mushroom. Inoculation could be carried out in sterilization rooms or inoculation boxes. The former should be suffocated by formaldehyde, whose dose is 10-15 ml per m2,one week earlier before inoculation and its gates should be placed lime. The personnel who pass in and out the rooms should step the lime. As far as inoculation boxes are concerned, they should be disinfected by formaldehyde, whose dose is 10-15 ml per cm2, or a box of inhalator disinfection box 2 days earlier before inoculation. After sterilization bags, stains, alcohol burners and inoculation tools are placed in the inoculation rooms or boxes, people may inoculate the mushroom under the condition of 30 min suffocation by a box of inhalator disinfections box. The inoculation personnel should pull on a work clothes and wear working cap as well as cleaning their arms by 75% alcohol. The two clothes should be sterilized before used. The inoculation tools should be cleaned by 75% alcohol and sterilized with fire. And the stain bottles should be disinfected by 0.1% potassium permanganate. The alcohol burners should be placed in the inoculation rooms or boxes. The stain bottles and the bags should be located in the asepsis area of alcohol burner’s flame to prevent being polluted by miscellaneous fungi. Each bottle could be used to inoculate 8 bags. Used two sides inoculation method, 150 bottles are applied per ton media. It is suitable to inoculate the strain when the size of strain is as big as the one of horse bean. The inoculation action should as soon as possible i.e. untie the bags fast, inoculate the strain quickly and tighten the bags rapidly. The bags should be placed in the location of spawn running in time and sterilized after inoculation.
7. The management of spawn running
The spawn running location should be cleaned and disinfected one time by formaldehyde or inhalator disinfections boxes one week earlier before the bags are transferred to the place. The mushroom could spawn running in the rooms or greenhouses. The bags should be fetched lightly in the course of transport, load and unload and putting. People may decide the number of putting layers based on the seasons and inner temperature of spawn running location. Usually, the number is 4-6. It should be placed two thin bamboo poles between layers to facilitate the ventilation and falling the inner temperature when the inner temperature is high. After the bags in located in the spawn running rooms, people should disinfect the rooms by inhalator disinfections boxes. After that, people should disinfect the rooms one time per 10 days. It is the first time to turning and rearranges the locations of the bags 10 days later after inoculation to check the growth condition of the hypha and whether there are any miscellaneous fungi. People may check the bags one time per 10 days. If there are some spot miscellaneous fungi, the bags could be dealt with formaldehyde, alcohol and kerosene. The bags should be transferred to outer places when the condition is terrible. Do pay attention to adjust the four elements including temperature, humidity, air and light in the course of spawn running. The temperature should be controlled between 22°C and 27°C while the relative air humidity should be lower than 70%. Do ventilate the rooms and exchange the air frequently to keep the inner air fresh. Lucifugous spawn running. Commonly, the spawn running cycle is about 35 days. At that time, the mushroom could overgrow in the bags.
8. The management of post-maturation
The mushroom could not fruit at once after the hypha have overgrew in the bags. It must be cultured for more 30-40 days under the circumstances of 20°C-25°C temperature and 70%-75% humidity so that the mushroom could turn strong white and reach physiological mature. This course is called as hypha physiological. The mushroom could not fruited until it has matured. If the temperature of physiological period is too low, the period should be elongated. This period need definite simulation of light in the anaphase when the hypha begins to wring.
9. The management of fruiting
It is proper that the bags, which are overgrew by the hypha, are managed batch. A 30 m2 fruiting location could be placed about 1200 bags (the dry materials are 1000 kg). Greenhouses or mushroom houses are often applied to fruiting. The method is wall or layer cultivation with the bags covered by organic fermentation soil. The temperature should be controlled between 8°C and 20°C . To undraw the difference in temperature, people may take off membranes to offer the simulation of low temperature and give the mushroom dispersing light to promote their buds. When the anlage of the mushroom reaches the size of primary colors, people may unbind the bags. And people could expend the orifice of plastic bag when the mushroom is as big as the size of horse bean. It is time to roll up the orifice of plastic bag and sprinkle them with liquid fungus fertilizer of the mushroom (Chuiguling) diluted 30 times by sprayers when the mushroom reaches the size of ping-pong. To advance the period of fruiting and increase the yield, people should sprinkle frequently in small amount and keep the temperature between 12°C and 20°C and relative air humidity between 80% and 90%. To prevent the formation of abnormal mushroom, people should ventilate the rooms and exchange gas properly as well as there is definite dispersing light. It is about 10-15 days before the mushroom could be harvested. The biological transform rate is 40%-80%.
At present, the bags without covered with soil are mostly used in planting the mushroom. Commonly, the mushroom could merely harvest one time. To increase the yield, the mushroom could fruit in the double-wall planting manner covered soil after the mushroom is harvested one time. The space between the strains of two walls is 20 cm – 30 cm while the middle part is filled in disinfected soil. The yield could increase 30%-40% if the location of filled in disinfected soil is burrowed to the bottom and filled in liquid fungus fertilizer (Chuiguling).