A Brief Introduction to Agrocybe chaxingu
Agrocybe chaxinggu, also named Agrocybe aegerita. Mr. Nianlai Huang who is working in the Fungal Institute of Sanming names it. It has other Chinese names including cashugu, cagu, yangshugu, and liusonggu and zhuzhuangtiantougu. The mushroom grows in dry and died boles of broadleaf such as grease tea plant and poplar. It was domesticated and planted from 1980s in our country. The planting techs tend to become mature recently. It is a kind of mushroom breed, which has vast developing foreground.
1. Shape characteristics
The hypha, which is white and dense, grows fast. It will overgrow in the planting bags after planted 30-35 days later. The fruit bodies grow geminately or thickly. The diameter of pilei is between 6 and 8 cm. And the pilei are umbrella and their surfaces are velvet and wine. However, the surfaces turn undertone and crimple after the pilei open. The gills are hazel and link growing while the spores are brown. The mushroom has velum, which is left in the stipe or attached at the edge of pilei. The stipes ranging in length from 8 to 12 cm is weak white and inside burliness.
2. Biological characteristics
Commonly, the offal stuff and scrap of agricultural byproduct including cottonseed shells, cotton wastes, wooden bits, straws, wheat poles, maize core poles and cotton poles contain cellulose, hemicelluloses, xylogen, organic salt, amylum and amino acids. The hypha could decompose and use them if appended suitable complement. The proteinase activity of the hypha is high. The yield is greatly increased if proper nitrogen resource is supplemented in the medium.
The growth spectrum of hypha is between 10 and 34°C while the most suitable temperature is 24-26°C. 18000-20000°C accumulation temperature is needed during the whole growth period of the hypha. Moreover, the growth spectrum of fruit body is 14-32°C while the most suitable temperature is 20-28°C.
2.3 Water and humidity
The mushroom is fond of wet environment. The medium humidity had better be controlled between 60% and 62%. The space humidity of hypha growth stage is between 70% and 80% while the one of fruit body is between 86% and 95%. To promote the growth of fruit body and increase the yield, the space humidity could be changed from 95% to 85% in the course of the growth of fruit body.
The mushroom is able to bear CO2 so that it could growth normally in the concentration of 0.1%-0.15%. However, it will put off the time of fruiting or form abnormal mushroom if the concentration is higher than 0.25%. Simulated the bagging of Flammulina velutipes (curt.Fr.)Sing or lengthened the bag, mushroom, which has small pilei, long stipes and brickle character, could be obtained.
The hypha likes to grow in dark condition. The phase of spawn running doesn’t need any light while definite light is required to activate the mushroom in the phase of fruiting. Currently, the mushroom could grow in the condition of 25-500 Lux.
2.6 pH value
The mushroom produces little organic acids in the course of growth and metabolism of hypha. At that time, the pH value of medium basically doesn’t change. The spectrum of suitable pH value is 4.5-7.5 while the most suitable one is 5.5-6.5.
3. Planting season
The mushroom is a middle and on the high side temperature breed. It could be planted in spring and autumn. And the exact time is based on the current local temperature. After inoculated 80 days, the mushroom could be planted in Spring when the highest temperature is lower than 32°C. As far as the planting time in Autumn is concerned, it is time to plant the mushroom when the highest temperature is not higher than 32°C and the strain is inoculated 45 days. It may be cultivated in fields. And people may put up shades sheds in summer or use plastic to construct small sheds to plant the mushroom. Thus, it could be planted in the four seasons.
4. Tailoring-planting bags and its management
4.1 Choosing and mixing materials
People had better choose fresh and dry materials without mildews. According to the nutrition the mushroom growth needs and the local materials resources, people could select the suitable materials agilely. The components of media may be as following:
1. Cottonseed nut 42%, wooded bit 30%, wheat bran 18%, cornmeal 7.5%, sucrose 0.8%, gypsum 0.2%, KH2P04 0.3%;
2.Cottonseed nut 56%, wooded bit 16%, rice bran 16%, cornmeal 5.5%, tea cake 4%, gypsum 0.5%, brown sugar 0.6%, KH2PO4 4%
3. Cottonseed nut 48%, wooded bit 12%, wheat bran 18%, cornmeal 6%, and shell powder of tea seed 10%, teacake 4%, and gypsum 1.5%, and sugar 0.6%, KH2PO4 4%;
4. Straw powder (or corn core powder and wheat grass powder)42%, wooded bit 34%, wheat bran 22%, gypsum 1%, lime powder 0.5%, excessive calcium phosphate 0.5%;
5. Wooden bit 72%, wheat bran 15%, rice bran 10%, sugar 1%, gypsum 1.2% and lime powder 0.5%, KH2PO4 0.3%.
4.2 Bagging and sterilization
It is necessary to sufficiently control the material moisture quantity after the materials are mixed round equally. The moisture quantity of normal pressure is 60% while the one of high pressure is 62-65%. People could use the bags, which is made from 15c m×30 cm×0.005 cm or 17cm × 35 cm×0.005 cm polypropylene. Be sure to tighten the bags in equal degree of tightness to avoid that the mushroom growth from the bag border. Commonly, a 15 cm×30 cm planting bag could be loaded 0.65-0.70 Kg wet materials while a 17 cm× 35 cm one is 0.90-0.95 Kg. To prevent that the materials go sour, please sterilizate immediately after bagging. It is proper to suddenly grill the materials between head and cauda and keep the middle in the condition of normal sterilization. That is, the materials are added temperature quickly at the beginning of sterilization and kept 100°C for 12 hours. When the sterilization is coming over, do grill the materials suddenly to benefit sterilization. Please add the temperature up to 14.7×104 Pa (1.5Kg/m2) pressure, which is lasted for 3 hours, after the air conditioning is give out entirely in the course of high pressure sterilization. After the temperature is lower than 30°C, the media could be inoculated.
4.3 The management of inoculation and spawn running period
Currently, people use inoculates the strain in inoculation box or inoculation room. To antisepsis and sterilization, inhalator disinfector 4 g or formaldehyde 10 g or potassium permanganate 5 g per 1 m3 is applied. A bottle strain could be used to inoculate 40-grain medium bags or 25 wooden bit bags. The bags should be place in dry, clean and ventilated rooms after inoculation. Base on the living conditions of the mushroom, people must control well the temperature, air humidity and light. Do check frequently whether the bags are infected with other bacteria and deal with problems in time. When the length of hypha is 1/3 of the bags, people may untie the bags to permit the entry of a small quantity of air so that the hypha could grow quickly. Considering different spec bags, the hypha need about 30-40 days to overgrow the bags.
4.4 The fruiting period and the management after harvest
It is time to open the bags and supplement water when the bags come forth yellow water and brown spot and little buds. To promote the growth of the mushroom, people may control the air humidity between 90-95% and add definite dispersion light to benefit the formation of the buds. To increase the yield, the air humidity could be decreased between 85% and 90% when the length of the buds is 3-4 cm. After 10-14 days management, the mushroom could be harvested. To facilitate the comeback of hypha during fallow period, do clean the sundries of medium surface and stop sprinkle water for 5-6 days after harvest. People should continue sprinkling water so that the second period mushroom could be gained. After that, the media is so dry that people should supplement water to fit the requirement of fruiting after fallow period. Commonly, each bag could be harvested 4-6 flashes and the whole cycle lasts 130 days.
4.5 Harvest and processing
It is time to harvest the mushroom before the pilei do not open and the velum doesn’t disengage and when wine pilei turn sandy beige. To increase the yield, people may harvest the mushroom 2-3 times everyday. Do cut the sundries of basic part of the mushroom and drying or insolate them in time after harvest. Drying mushroom is strongly fragrant and its color and luster and quality are good. Base on the size and color and luster, the mushroom is classified. It is suitable to airproof the mushroom with plastic bags and places them in dry and ventilating locations to prevent the mushroom being affected with damp and metamorphosed.